Goals or Standards
Organize a writing so a reader can follow it from the opening sentence to closing paragraph without being confused.
--create a focus.
--provide a map.
--link paragraphs to each other.
Have something to say.
--write from experience.
--connect to others.
--surprise the reader in expected directions.
--understand relationship between general and particular.
--balance " too much evidence" with "not enough."
--use variety of modes: narration, persuasion, comparison, cause--effect…
--sacrifice self in the writing.
--recognize arbitrary nature of readers
--expect unanticipated reactions
--prepare to recover
Be politically savvy.
--keep a hand on the reader's pulse.
--recognize reader withdrawal
--Say it differently.
--Use different vocabulary, metaphors, analogies.
--find a first and second reader.
--test understanding and reactions.
--change until time runs out.
--proof final copy.
Create clean copy.
--format with latest technology.
--use readable print.
--appeal to all senses.
Practice all of the above; add:
Know style guides.
--use style required in appropriate discipline.
--get readers to referenced pages, publications.
--use both brief and extended quotations.
Contribute new thought.
--know the original material and its critics.
--dare to go beyond what has already been said.
--keep it understandable and useful.
--offer content unconditionally.
Make thought vigorous.
--invent new arguments.
--go beyond established boundaries.
--become prophet, priest, and king.
--know when to shut up!
Publish what you write.
--use technology to distribute copy.
--know your readers.
--write both wanted and unwanted thinking.
--balance conservative and radical.
Seek to make a difference.
--know you are what you write.
--write what you are.
--anticipate failure and success.
--keep at it!