jewish feasts

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  Copyright 2001 Jeanie C. Crain
Last modified: March, 2002

http://www.bcbsr.com/survey/jcal.html

http://www.bcbsr.com/survey/jcal.html

First Century Calendar:

Nissan-four Sabbaths mid March/early April

Passover incorporated into Festival of Unleavened Bread, lasting eight days.

4 Sabbaths, begin reading of Torah, 2 Sabbaths of preparation for the Passover; the second Sabbath  would be the Noah story and theme of the end; Genesis read over twelve Sabbaths, or through four Sabbaths of Iyar, and four of the five Sabbaths of Sivan.
Iyyar-four Sabbaths April-May  
Sivan--Five Sabbaths May to June. Festival of Pentecost (Shavuot), fiftieth day after Passover, originally a harvest celebration that became celebration of receiving the law on Sinai. Exodus--begin reading on the fifth Sabbath of Sivan, required  eleven Sabbaths.
Tammuz--Four Sabbaths June to July. Exodus
Ab--Four Sabbaths July to August. Ninth of Ab--pentitential day remembering when Jerusalem fell to the Babylonians, sixth century B.C.E. Exodus
Elul-five Sabbaths August to September Exodus, for two Sabbaths of Elul.; Leviticus, third Sabbath, read over eight Sabbaths.
Tishri--four Sabbaths mid-September to mid-October; Jewish New Year ( Rosh Hashanah)**in September. Between the  second and third Sabbaths, Yom Kippur or Day of Atonement; between the third and fourth day of Tishri, Sukkot or Tabernacles (8 days). Leviticus
Chesvan-five Sabbaths Oct to Nov Leviticus, first Sabbath in Chesvan; Numbers
Kislev--five Sabbaths Nov. to Dec. Dedication or Hanukkah, celebrating restoration of temple Numbers
Tebeth--five Sabbaths Dec to Jan Numbers (nine Sabbaths), first Sabbath of Tebeth. Deuteronomy, second Sabbath and remaining three Sabbaths
Shebat--four Sabbaths Jan to Feb Deuteronomy eleven Sabbaths
Adar--four Sabbaths Feb to March Purim-deliverance during the time of the Persians Deuteronomy

Notes from  John Shelby Spong, Liberating the Gospel: Reading the Bible with Jewish Eyes (HarperCollins Publishers, 1996), "Part Two: Examining the Gospel Texts from a Jewish Perspective."

**After the exile (sixth century B.C.E.), the tradition arose of starting the New Year in the spring, after the custom of the Babylonians; the liturgical year begins, thus, on the first day of Nisan (mid-March-April) rather than Tishri (Sept-October).

*The Feast of the Passover was incorporated into a festival of unleavened bread that lasted eight days.

*The first and second Sabbaths of Nisan  were Sabbaths of preparation for the focal Passover.

*The Jews completed the reading of the Torah (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy) over  one year, beginning on the first Sabbath of Nisan.

*The Jewish calendar was constructed on the lunar year, not the present Julian calendar. (Twelve moons in the lunar model do not make 365 and1/4 days, so the Jewish people would have to add a month periodically to keep their calendar from falling too far behind). The Jewish year had fifty to fifty-one Sabbaths.

First Sabbath of Nisan--Genesis (read over twelve Sabbaths, which would include the four Sabbaths of Nisan, the four Sabbaths of Iyyar, and four of the five Sabbaths of Sivan.

Second Sabbath (before the Passover)--Noah, world destroyed by flood, theme of the end.

Festival of Pentecost (Shavuot) occurred within Genesis reading; originally an early harvest celebration came to make the giving of the law and reception by Moses. Pentecost occurred on the 15th day after the Passover.

Exodus began to be read on the fifth Sabbath of Sivan and generally consumed eleven Sabbaths.

http://www.biblicalholidays.com/
Spring Festivals   Fall Festivals
Passover Unleaven Bread Pentecost Trumpets Atonement Tabernacles
14th Day
1st Month
(Nisan)
A Week Long Festival
15th to 21st Day
1st Month
(Nisan)
50 days from
 15 Nisan
(6 Sivan)
1st day
7th Month
(Tishri)
10th Day
7th Month
(Tishri)
An Eight Day Festival
15th to 22nd Day
7th Month
(Tishri)
Erev Pesah Pesah
1st Day
of Festival
Omer
Firstfruits
Yom Tov
7th Day
of Festival
Shavuot
Feast of Weeks
or Firstfruits
Rosh
Ha-shanah
Yom Kippur Sukkoth
1st Day
of Festival
Shemini Atzeret
8th Day of Festival
  15th Day
1st Month
(Nisan)
16th Day
1st Month
(Nisan)
21st Day
1st Month
(Nisan)

 

    15th Day
7th Month
(Tishri)
22nd Day
7th Month
(Tishri)
  A Sabbath   A Sabbath A Sabbath A Sabbath A Sabbath A Sabbath A Sabbath
Crucifixion   Resurrection   Holy Spirit Warning Judgment Ingathering
 

In Jerusalem

In Jerusalem

   

In Jerusalem

  Barley Harvest Wheat Harvest     Fruit Harvest
  Latter Rains       Early Rains

 http://www.aloha.net/~mikesch/feasts.htm

The following discussion of Jewish feast days is also taken from the above reference:

THE BIBLICAL FEAST DAYS - GOD'S CALENDAR

The 1st day of the first month (Abib/Nisan) was the first day of the Jewish religious year. It would begin at the new moon of our March / April and coincides with the latter rains (Joel 2:23). Each month began with a new moon. (Num 10:10, 28:11, 1 Sam 20:5, Psa 81:3, Isa 66:23, Ezek 46:3, Amos 8:5, Col. 2:16.) The 1st day of Tishri, in the Fall, customarily begins the new civil year.

Jewish month New moon of Bible references
1. Abib* / Nisan March-April Ex 13:4, 23:15, Neh 2:1
2. Zif* / Iyyar April-May 1 Ki 6:1, 37
3. Sivan May-June Est 8:9
4. Tammuz June-July -
5. Ab / Av July-August -
6. Elul August-September Neh 6:15
7. Ethanim* / Tishri September-October 1 Ki 8:2
8. Bul* / Marheshvan / Heshvan October-November 1 Ki 6:38
9. Chisleu / Chislev / Kislev November-December Neh 1:1
10. Tebeth / Tevet December-January Est 2:16
11. Shebat / Shevat January-February Zec 1:7
12. Adar February-March Est 3:7
13. 2nd Adar (7 of 19 years) March 14,15  
 
* Pre-exilic names

 

THE SABBATHS OF THE JEWISH YEAR

In addition to the observance of the new moon, which begins a month, the following Sabbaths and festival days are found in the Bible.

1. The seventh day (Saturday) Sabbath - (Shabbat)

Lev 23:3, Num 28:9-10, Exo 20,8-11, Deut 5:12-15
A convocation day. No servile work done.

This is the only feast day mentioned that occurs more than once a year. Because it occurs on a weekly basis, it is separate and distinct from the yearly religious calendar, the feasts of which all are a shadow or type of some event that would be their fulfillment, or antitype. The seventh day sabbath is a memorial to creation and the creator, established at creation. It was not a day that originated with the Jews, it preceded them, although it was celebrated as a feast day. When one of the feast days fell on the seventh day Sabbath, it was referred to as a high Sabbath day (John 19:31).

2. Passover (Erev Pesah or Ta'anit Bechorim)

The 14th day of the 1st month (Abib / Nisan)
Exo 12, Exo 13:6-8, Lev 23:5, Deut 16:3-8, Num 28:16
Note: this was not a convocation day (no public gatherings)

The Jews consider this day to be the day before Passover (Pesah), which to them is the same as the Feast of Unleavened Bread. The type was the Passover in Egypt, with the blood of the lamb being smeared on the door posts. Jesus and the disciples ate the Passover meal (Matt 26:18-20) of unleavened bread and wine in the early hours of this day (Exo 12:18), which would have been our Thursday evening (the biblical day begins and ends at sunset). Jesus was crucified the afternoon of the 14th (Friday), at the time the Paschal lambs were being slain (Exo 12:6). Passover is a shadow or type of the sacrifice of Jesus (the antitype), the lamb of God, at the cross (1 Cor 5:7).

(Ta'anit Bechorim is a fast observed only by the first born. It is to commemorate being spared from the last plague to fall on Egypt- the death of the first born.)

3. Feast of Unleavened Bread (Pesah) - a week long observance.

First day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread -
15th day of the 1st month (Abib/Nisan)
Lev 23:7, Num 28:17,
A convocation / Sabbath day.
First born dedicated to the Lord's service.
Travel to the Sanctuary in Jerusalem required of all men (Exo 23:14,17, Exo 34:22, Deut 16:16).

A celebration of release from bondage in Egypt (Exo 13:6-10). All leaven bread (hametz) removed and replaced by unleaven bread (matzah). This day fell on the seventh day Sabbath, the day after the crucifixion, making it a high Sabbath day - (John 19:31). Jesus spent the entire day in the tomb, at rest on this Sabbath.

The Feast of Unleavened Bread, was a type of the sinless nature of Jesus releasing us from the bondage of sin (if we we have faith in His atoning death). Jesus is the sinless bread of life (John 6:32, 48-51) and leavened bread represented the corruption of sin in your life, that Jesus overcomes - (1 Cor 5:8). Putting away the sin in your life (leavened bread / hametz), and replacing it by accepting sinless Jesus Christ (unleaven bread / matzah) in its place, is the Gospel Message symbolized in the Passover meal, known today as the Lord's Supper or Communion. You participate in the Lord's Supper to remember the sacrifice that Jesus made for you at the cross (Luke 22:19).

This was the time of year of the latter rain (March/April).

On this day Israel began to eat from the old corn and the manna ended the following day (Josh 5:11)

The Day of First Fruits (The Omer)

The 16th day of the 1st month (Abib / Nisan)
Exo 34:25-26, Lev 23:10-14, - Late Passover Num 9:10-11
Not a convocation day. No restriction on servile work.
Barley harvest - Firstfruits presented to the Lord (Lev 23:10-11)

This was the day of first sheaf waving (type), the first fruit of the barley harvest. The antitype was Resurrection Sunday which also occurred on 16 Abib / Nissan. Jesus was the first fruits of the resurrection, (1 Cor 15:20, 23, 2 Tim 2:6-8), the antitype. It is important to note that it was not a day of convocation (NOT A SABBATH) to the Jews, so there is no reason for it to be a Sabbath in antitype (post-resurrection) to Christians. This is because the festival Sabbaths were not just commemorative in nature, but also prophetic, pointing to future holy events as fulfillments. To suggest a new Sunday holy day was instituted on resurrection day, is to say the festival calendar appointed by God was in error, since it omits a weekly 1st day observance.

In Jewish Tradition, the period called the Omer begins on 16 Nisan and extends for the count of 50 days to Pentecost or Shavuot

Manna ceased to fall on this day (Josh 5:12)

7th and last day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Yom Tov)

The 21st day of 1st month (Abib / Nisan)
Exo 12:18, 13:6, Lev 23:8, Num 28:25
A convocation / Sabbath day. No servile work.
Traditional celebration of the crossing of the Red Sea.

Passover Feast of Unleavened Bread
14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st
Paschal
Lamb
Slain
1st Day
Feast of
 Unleaven Bread
The Omer
(First Fruits)
 -  -  - - 7th Day
Feast of
 Unleaven Bread
Not
a Sabbath
A Sabbath Not
a Sabbath
 -  -  -  - A Sabbath
Unleaven Bread Eaten
  All Leaven Removed From the House
Crucifixion In the tomb Resurrection  -  -  -  -  -
1st Day 2nd Day 3rd Day          

4. Pentecost (Shavuot)

The 6th day of the third month (Sivan)
Exo 34:22, Lev 23:15-21, Acts 2:1, Acts 20:16, 1 Cor 16:8
Occurs 50 days after the day of first fruits (16 Nisan) or sheaf waving (barley).
A convocation / Sabbath day. No servile work done.
Travel to the Sanctuary in Jerusalem required of all men (Exo 23:14,17, Exo 34:22, Deut 16:16).
Wheat harvest - Firstfruits presented to the Lord (Lev 23:17, 20)

Also called Feast of Weeks (Ex 34:22), the day of First Fruits (Exo 23:16, Num 28:26) Feast of the Harvest (Ex 23:16) and in the New Testament - Pentecost (Acts 2:1) A festival that celebrated the first fruits of the wheat harvest with the offering of two wave loaves of leavened bread (Lev 23:17, 20). This feast was also a shadow or type because fifty days after the resurrection there was the first outpouring of the Holy Spirit, that resulted in three thousand souls being added to the church in one day. (Acts 2:41), This outpouring of the Holy Spirit is also known as the early rain (Antitype). There will also be a latter rain, the greater outpouring of the Holy Spirit near the end of time. (Joel 2:23, Zech 10:1, James 5:7) This outpouring will be most evident with the 144,000 (Rev 7:1-7) who will preach the Gospel message the final time before the second coming, and bring in a great multitude of converts before the close of probation on humanity (Rev 7:9-17).

With the destruction of the Temple in 70 A.D., the Jews were unable to celebrate this festival as commanded, and substituted the celebration of the revelation of the Torah to Moses on Sinai, something they themselves admit has no biblical foundation. They also have no explanation for the reason to count 50 days to Shavuot. Since the Jews do not recognize the outpouring of the Holy Spirit in the second chapter of Acts as a fulfillment of Pentecost/Shavuot, they are consequently unsure about the true meaning of the festival.

5. Feast of Trumpets (Rosh Ha-shanah)

The 1st day of the 7th month (Ethanim / Tishri)
Lev 23:24, Num 29:1
A convocation / Sabbath day. No servile work done.
The first day of the Jewish civil year.

This was an announcement to Israel of impending judgment, which occurred on the Day of Atonement, nine days later. The antitype of Trumpets was the worldwide proclamation of the second coming in 1843, during the "Great Awakening" revival, which was based on the 2300 days/years prophecy in Dan 8:14, which began in 457 B.C. and ended in 1844. This was mistakenly interpreted, by William Miller and others, to predict the time of the second coming and end of the world in 1844, when in fact it was the cleansing of the heavenly sanctuary and the beginning of the pre-advent investigative judgment.

6. Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur)

The 10th day of the 7th month (Ethanim / Tishri)
Lev 23:27, Num 29:7, Lev 16
A convocation / Sabbath day. No servile work done.

This was the holiest day of the year and signified a cleansing of sins and reconciliation with God (Judgment day). The people were to afflict their souls and fast. On this day only the High Priest entered the Holy of Holies to atone for the sins of the people (Lev 16). This was a shadow or type of Jesus carrying out his role as our High Priest (Heb 9) and entering the Holy of Holies in the heavenly sanctuary when he began the investigative judgment at the end of the 2300 days / years of Dan 8:14 on October 22, 1844. This was the beginning of the antitype or fulfillment of the Day of Atonement, which is still underway in heaven today. This judgment begins with the righteous dead and will end with the righteous living. At the end of this period of judgment, probation for humanity will have closed, and the 7 plagues of God will then fall on the wicked. Soon after will be the second coming, to gather the righteous to join the kingdom of God in heaven for 1000 years.

The Jubilee year begins on this day (Lev 25:9).

7. Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkoth) - An eight day feast of ingathering.

The first day was the 15th day of the 7th month (Ethanim / Tishri)
Exo 34:22, Lev 23:34-36, 39-43, Num 29:12
A convocation / Sabbath day. No servile work done.
Travel to the Sanctuary in Jerusalem required of all men (Exo 23:14,17, Exo 34:22, Deut 16:16).
Fruit Harvest - Firstfruits presented to the Lord (Exo 23:19)

For seven days the people moved out of their homes and lived in temporary shelters called "Sukkah" as a reminder of their wanderings in the desert for forty years. The branches cut from palm, willow and other trees were to be waved in celebration to the Lord during the first seven days of the feast. (Lev 23:40)

This final feast of the year is a celebration of ingathering at the end of the harvest (Exo 23:16) and is a time of rejoicing and fellowship. It symbolizes the final gathering of God's people, before the marriage supper of the Lamb, to be celebrated in heaven after the second coming.

The 7th day of the Feast of Tabernacles, Festival of Willows (Hoshana Rabbah)

21st day of the seventh month.

Considered by Jewish custom to be the final day of judgment. A ritual of beating willow branches on the ground is practiced, which is thought to symbolize the casting away of sin.

The 8th day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Shemini Atzeret)

22nd day of the seventh month.
Lev 23:36,39, Num 29:35
A convocation / Sabbath day. No servile work done.

The final day of Tabernacles was also a Sabbath, a day of solemn assembly. At this time of year the former or early rains fell (late October / November), when the fields were plowed and sown.

http://www.tyndale.cam.ac.uk/Scriptures/www.innvista.com/scriptures/compare/sabbaths.htm Complexity in understanding what is meant by Sabbath:

Versions Compared

 

AAT An American Translation (Beck)
AB Amplified Bible
ANT The Authentic New Testament
BNT Barclay New Testament
CEV Contemporary English Version
CJB Complete Jewish Bible
CLNT Concordant Literal New Testament
CNT Cassirer New Testament
CTNT Centenary Translation of the New Testament
DHB Darby Holy Bible
DRB Douay-Rheims Bible
EBR The Emphasized Bible
GW God's Word
HBME The Holy Bible in Modern English
HBRV Holy Bible, Revised Version
IB Interlinear Bible
IV Inspired Version
KJV King James Version
LB Living Bible
LBP Lamsa Bible
MCT McCord's New Testament Translation
MNT Moffatt New Translation
MRB Modern Reader's Bible
MSNT The Modern Speech New Testament
NAB New American Bible
NAS New American Standard Version
NBV New Berkeley Version
NCV New Century Version
NEB New English Bible
NET New Evangelical Translation
NIV New International Version
NJB New Jerusalem Bible
NKJ New King James Version
NLV New Life Version
NNT Noli New Testament
NRS New Revised Standard Version
NSNT Norlie's Simplified New Testament
NWT New World Translation
PRS Phillips Revised Student Edition
REB Revised English Bible
RSV Revised Standard Version
SGAT An American Translation (Smith-Goodspeed)
SNB Restoration of Original Sacred Name Bible
SSBE Sacred Scriptures, Bethel Edition
SV The Scholar's Version
TDB The Dartmouth Bible
TEV Today's English Version
TM The Message
WAS Worrell New Testament
WET Wuest Expanded Translation
WMF The Word Made Fresh
WNT Williams New Testament
YLR Young's Literal Translation, Revised Edition

 

 

Matthew 28: 1
AAT After the Sabbath, as the first day of the week was dawning, Mary from Magdala and the other Mary went to look at the grave.
AB Now after the Sabbath, near the dawn of the first day of the week, Mary of Magdala and the other Mary went to take a look at the tomb.
ANT When the sabbath was over, as the day after the sabbath began to dawn, Mary of Magdala and the other Mary came to inspect the burial place.
BNT Late on the Sabbath, just as the day was breaking on the Sunday, Mary from Magdala and the other Mary came to look at the tomb.
CEV The Sabbath was over, and it was almost daybreak on Sunday when Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to see the tomb.
CJB After Shabbat, toward dawn on Sunday, Miryam of Magdala and the other Miryam went to see the grave.
CLNT Now it is the evening of the sabbaths. At the lighting up into one of the sabbaths came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to behold the sepulcher.
CNT The day after the Sabbath, as the first light of another week began to dawn, Mary of Magdala and the other Mary went forth to look at the grave.
CTNT At the end of the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came down to see the sepulcher, ... .
DHB Now late on the sabbath, as it was dusk of the next day after sabbath, came Mary of Magdala and the other Mary to look at the sepulchre.
DRB And in the end of the sabbath, when it began to dawn towards the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalen and the other Mary, to see the sepulchre.
EBR And <late in the week when it was on the point of dawning into the first of the week> came Mary the Magdalene, and the other Mary, to view the sepulchre.
GW After the Sabbath, as Sunday morning was dawning, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb.
HBME After the Sabbaths, towards the dawn of the day following the Sabbaths, Mary, the Magdalene, and the other Mary, came to examine the tomb.
HBRV Now late on the sabbath day, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.
IB After the sabbaths, at the dawning into the first of the sabbaths, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the grave.
IV In the end of the Sabbath day, as it began to dawn towards the first day of the week, early in the morning, came Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.
KJV In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.
LB Early on Sunday morning, as the new day was dawning, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went out to the tomb.
LBP In the evening of the sabbath, when the first day of the week began to dawn, there came Mary of Magdala and the other Mary to see the tomb.
MCT After the sabbath, as Sunday dawned, Mary of Magdala and the other Mary came to see the tomb, ... .
MNT At the close of the sabbath, as the first day of the week was dawning, Mary of Magdala and the other Mary went to look at the tomb.
MRB Now late on the sabbath day, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.
MSNT After the Sabbath, in the early dawn of the first day of the week, Mary of Magdala and the other Mary came to see the sepulchre.
NAB After the sabbath, as the first day of the week was dawning, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb.
NAS Now after the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to look at the grave.
NBV After the close of the Sabbath, with the dawning of the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to look at the tomb.
NCV The day after the Sabbath day was the first day of the week. At dawn on the first day, Mary Magdalene and another woman named Mary went to look at the tomb.
NEB The sabbath was over, and it was about daybreak on Sunday, when Mary of Magdala and the other Mary came to look at the grave.
NET After the Sabbath, as Sunday was dawning, Mary from Magdala and the other Mary went to look at the tomb.
NIV After the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb.
NJB After the Sabbath, and towards dawn on the first day of the week, Mary of Magdala and the other Mary went to visit the sepulchre.
NKJ Now after the Sabbath, as the first day of the week began to dawn, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb.
NLV The Day of Rest was over. The sun was coming up on the first day of the week. Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the grave.
NNT After the Sabbath, as the first day of the week was dawning, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to see the tomb.
NRS After the sabbath, as the first day of the week was dawning, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to see the tomb.
NSNT Now, late on the sabbath, as dawn was appearing on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to look at the tomb.
NWT After the sabbath, when it was growing light on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to view the grave.
PRS When the Sabbath was over, just as the first day of the week was dawning, Mary from Magdala and the other Mary went to look at the tomb.
REB About daybreak on the first day of the week, when the sabbath was over, Mary of Magdala and the other Mary came to look at the grave.
RSV Now after the sabbath, toward the dawn of the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to see the sepulchre.
SGAT After the Sabbath, as the first day of the week was dawning, Mary of Magdala and the other Mary went to look at the tomb.
SNB And late in the week when it was on the point of dawning into the first of the week, came Mary the Magdalene, and the other Mary, to view the sepulchre.
SSBE Now late on the sabbath day, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Miriam Magdalene and the other Miriam to see the sepulchre.
SV After the sabbath day, at first light on the first day of the week, Mary of Magdala and the other Mary came to inspect the tomb.
TDB [Omitted.]
TEV After the day of worship, as the sun rose Sunday morning, Mary from Magdala and the other Mary went to look at the tomb.
TM After the Sabbath, as the first light of the new week dawned, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to keep vigil at the tomb.
WAS Now, in the end of sabbaths at the dawning toward the first day of sabbaths, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.
WET Now, the sabbath having passed, as it was growing light toward the first day of the week, there came Mary, the Magdalene, and the other Mary, to inspect the tomb.
WMF After the sabbath day had passed Miss Alabama and the other Mary came at the crack of dawn ... .
WNT After the sabbath, as the first day of the week was dawning, Mary of Magdala and the other Mary went to get a look at the tomb.
YLR And on the eve of the sabbaths, at the dawn, toward the first of the sabbaths, came Mary the Magdalene, and the other Mary, to see the sepulchre, ...

 

 

Commentary

 

The Interlinear Bible starts well, but then makes the mistake of calling the "first day" a sabbath day. The two previous days were sabbaths; therefore the plural is correct. However, Sunday, the first day of the week (Firstfruits), cannot be a sabbath. Young's Literal Translation reads the same.

The passage in the Darby Holy Bible is confusing, even when considering the differences in the sabbaths. Also, dusk cannot be the proper time period. A footnote offers little help: "Now, late on the sabbath, as it was dusk of the next day after the sabbath ... .' or 'the first day of the week' as Mark 16: 2."

The Holy Bible in Modern English translates the passage well. However, the footnotes are questionable. The footnote reads, "The Greek original is in the plural, 'Sabbaths,' which is retained. Readers should remember that all seven days of the Paschal week were 'sabbaths' in the old Hebrew Kalendar. -- F. F." On the contrary, only the first and seventh days of that week would be sabbaths (Leviticus 23: 6-8), in addition to the usual weekly sabbath. Also, keep in mind that the Jewish people could not kindle fire or prepare their meals on sabbath days. Try that one for a week!

The Worrell New Testament takes the issue one step further by introducing a doctrinal change. In his footnotes, the translator states:

"The end of sabbaths:" meaning either the end of the sabbaths of the week just preceding Christ's resurrection (including the passover and the Jewish Sabbath, or Saturday) or more likely, the end of the Jewish Sabbaths (including the Saturday, or Jewish Sabbath, the special sabbaths, fast sabbaths, sabbath years, etc.). All these typical sabbaths came to their end, when the God-man arose from the grave: the types giving place to their anti-type.
"The first day of sabbaths:" the chief of sabbaths; the day that celebrates the redemption of man through the death and resurrection of Christ. This is most likely, the Edemic sabbath, which is the same as the creation sabbath. The right translation of Matthew 28: 1 and of kindred scriptures, gives us the Christian Sabbath, and leaves Saturday-worshipers without a foundation to stand upon.

The New Testament never refers the Sabbath being moved from the seventh day to the first day. Meeting together to worship on the first day of the week does not mean that the Sabbath has changed.

The reader may now appreciate the difficulties the translators have in explaining Matthew 28: 1. Viewing Biblical passages from a "Western" point of view can be confusing. In order to avoid misinterpretations, we should be careful not to remove the Jewishness from the Scriptures. As seen in this comparison, a simple misunderstanding or a lack of knowledge of the Jewish customs as found in the Old Testament can lead to frustration, -- or even a new doctrine.