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Outline. Oxford Bible
Commentaries. Published in the United States
The Risen Christ (20:1–21:25)
Part One: The Incarnation of the Son of God (1:1–18)
I. The Deity of Christ 1:1, 2
II. The Preincarnate Work of Christ 1:3–5
III. The Forerunner of Christ 1:6–8
IV. The Rejection of Christ 1:9–11
V. The Acceptance of Christ 1:12, 13
VI. The Incarnation of Christ 1:14–18
Part Two: The Presentation of the Son of God (1:19–4:54)
I. The Presentation of Christ by John the Baptist 1:19–34
A. John’s Witness to the Priests and Levites 1:19–28
B. John’s Witness at Christ’s Baptism 1:29–34
II. The Presentation of Christ to John’s Disciples 1:35–51
A. Andrew and Peter Follow Christ 1:35–42
B. Philip and Nathanael Follow Christ 1:43–51
III. The Presentation of Christ in Galilee 2:1–12
A. First Sign: Christ Changes Water to Wine 2:1–10
B. The Disciples Believe 2:11, 12
IV. The Presentation of Christ in Judea 2:13–3:36
A. Christ Cleanses the Temple 2:13–25
B. Christ Witnesses to Nicodemus 3:1–21
C. John the Baptist Witnesses Concerning Christ 3:22–36
V. The Presentation of Christ in Samaria 4:1–42
A. Christ Witnesses to the Woman at the Well 4:1–26
B. Christ Witnesses to the Disciples 4:27–38
C. Christ Witnesses to the Samaritans 4:39–42
VI. The Presentation of Christ in Galilee 4:43–54
A. Christ Is Received by the Galileans 4:43–54
B. Second Sign: Christ Heals the Nobleman’s Son 4:46–54
Part Three: The Opposition to the Son of God (5:1–12:50)
I. The Opposition at the Feast in Jerusalem 5:1–47
A. Third Sign: Christ Heals the Paralytic Man 5:1–9
B. Jews Reject Christ 5:10–47
II. The Opposition During Passover Time in Galilee 6:1–71
A. Fourth Sign: Christ Feeds 5,000 6:1–14
B. Fifth Sign: Christ Walks on the Water 6:15–21
C. Christ Announces: “I Am the Bread of Life” 6:22–71
III. The Opposition at the Feast of Tabernacles in Jerusalem 7:1–10:21
A. Before the Feast of Tabernacles 7:1–13
B. In the Middle of the Feast of Tabernacles 7:14–36
C. In the Last Day of the Feast of Tabernacles 7:37–53
D. After the Feast of Tabernacles 8:1–10:21
IV. The Opposition at the Feast of Dedication in Jerusalem 10:22–42
V. The Opposition at Bethany 11:1–12:11
A. Seventh Sign: Christ Raises Lazarus 11:1–44
B. The Pharisees Plan to Kill Christ 11:45–57
C. Mary Anoints Christ 12:1–11
VI. The Opposition at Jerusalem 12:12–50
A. The Triumphal Entry 12:12–22
B. The Messiah Teaches 12:23–50
Part Four: The Preparation of the Disciples
by the Son of God (13:1–17:26)
I. The Preparation in the Upper Room 13:1–14:31
A. Christ Washes the Disciples’ Feet 13:1–20
B. Christ Announces Judas, the Betrayer 13:21–30
C. Christ Gives the Upper Room Discourse 13:31–14:31
II. The Preparation on the Way to the Garden 15:1–17:26
A. Christ Instructs the Disciples 15:1–16:33
B. Christ Intercedes with the Father 17:1–26
Part Five: The Crucifixion and Resurrection
of the Son of God (18:1–21:25)
I. The Rejection of Christ 18:1–19:16
A. The Arrest of Christ 18:1–11
B. The Trials of Christ 18:12–19:16
II. The Crucifixion of Christ 19:17–37
A. Christ’s Crucifixion 19:17, 18
B. Pilate’s Inscription 19:19–22
C. Soldiers Cast Lots 19:23, 24
D. Mary’s Committal 19:25–27
E. Christ’s Death 19:28–37
III. The Burial of Christ 19:38–42
IV. The Resurrection of Christ 20:1–10
V. The Appearance of Christ 20:11–21:25
A. Christ Appears to Mary Magdalene 20:11–18
B. Christ Appears to the Disciples (Thomas Absent) 20:19–25
C. Christ Appears to the Disciples (Thomas Present) 20:26–29
D. The Purpose of John’s Gospel 20:30, 31
E. Christ Appears to the Seven Disciples 21:1–14
F. Christ Speaks to Peter 21:15–23
G. The Conclusion of John’s Gospel 21:24, 25
Thomas Nelson Publishers. 1996. Nelson's complete book of Bible maps & charts : Old and New Testaments. "Completely revised and updated comfort print edition";Includes indexes. (Rev. and updated ed.). Thomas Nelson: Nashville, Tenn.
I. Prologue: The Logos as God and Man (1:1-18)
II. The Son of God’s Manifestation to the Nation: The Book of Signs (1:19–12:50)
2. The First Disciples (1:35-51)
3. The First Sign: Water to Wine (2:1-11)
B. In Jerusalem and Judea: First Cycle/Seeking a Sign (2:12–3:36)
2. Faith in Man, Faith in Christ (2:23–3:36)
b. Faith in Christ: Jesus’ Self-Disclosure (3:13-21)
c. Faith in Christ: John’s Testimony (3:22-36)
C. In Samaria: Gentile Response (4:1-42)
3. The Response of the Samaritans (4:39-42)
D. In Galilee: Second Cycle/Healing the Official’s Son (Second Sign) (4:43-54)
E. In Jerusalem and Judea: Second Cycle/Sabbath Controversy (5:1-47)
F. In Galilee: Third Cycle/Signs Given (6:1-71)
2. The Bread of Life (6:25-59)
3. The Desertion of Many Disciples (6:60-71)
G. Ministry in Jerusalem and Judea: Third Cycle/Hostility Peaks (7:1–11:57)52
3) Offer of Living Water (7:37-44)
c. Unbelief of Jewish Leaders in spite of Teaching (7:45-52)53
d. Teaching in the Temple during the Feast: Round Two (8:12-59)
3) The Nature of Jesus’ Claims (8:48-59)
2. Cycle Two: Healings and Unbelief (9:1–10:42)
4) Response of Jesus (9:35-41)
b. Teaching: The Good Shepherd (10:1-21)
c. Unbelief of Jewish Leaders in spite of Miracles (10:22-39)
3. Cycle Three: Raising of Lazarus and Unbelief (10:40–12:50)
b. The Raising of Lazarus: Seventh Sign (11:38-44)
c. The Plot to Kill Jesus (11:45-57)
1) The Plot of the Sanhedrin (11:45-53)
2) The Withdrawal of Jesus to Ephraim (11:54-57)
H. In Jerusalem: The Final Manifestation (12:1-50)
3. The Request of the Greeks to See Jesus (12:20-22)
4. Jesus’ Prediction of his Death (12:23-36)
5. Unbelief of the Jewish Leaders Culminated (12:37-50)
III. The Son of God’s Ministry to His Disciples (13:1–17:26)
2. On the Way to Gethsemane: Final Instructions (14:31b–16:33)
B. Jesus Praying for His Disciples (In Gethsemane) (17:1-26)
IV. The Son of God’s Suffering and Glory (18:1–20:31)
b. Before Pilate (18:28–19:16)
3. The Death of Jesus (19:17-42)
c. The Burial of Jesus (19:38-42)
D. The Glory (20:1-31)
3. Purpose of the Gospel (20:30-31)
V. Epilogue: The Death of the Apostle Peter (21:1-25)
C. Commendation of the Gospel by the Ephesian Elders (21:24-25)
John's Argument according to Daniel Wallace http://www.bible.org/docs/soapbox/jnotl.htm
In that over 90% of the material in John’s Gospel is unique, not found in the other gospels, the question of sources and how John is using them becomes prominent. It is our contention that John’s Gospel was written at about the same time as Matthew and Luke, for the evangelist shows virtually no awareness of the material found in the other gospels (typically common oral traditions being an exception). But if John did not get his material from these other sources, where did he get it from and why do they not employ it in their gospels? In particular, how is it possible that Luke, who spent two years in Palestine doing research for his Gospel, did not gain access to John’s pre-publication draft?47 It seems either that John’s circle was quite small—hence, the oral traditions generating from him made little impact on the mainstream of the gospel compilers; or else John drastically altered the shape of the material, packaging it for the hellenized audience of Asia Minor. We believe that the truth involves both of these possibilities.48 Our argument will accordingly be shaped by this consideration.
The Gospel of John has four major sections to it: prologue (1:1-18), the Son of God’s manifestation to the nation (or, the “Book of Signs”) (1:19–12:50), the Son of God’s ministry to his disciples (13:1–17:26), and the Son of God’s suffering and glory (18:1–20:31). An epilogue about the death of Peter is added almost as an afterthought (21:1-25). The two largest sections (public manifestation and private ministry) contrast sharply with one another in many ways, not the least of which is in chronological progression (three or four years vs. one night!).
The Gospel opens with a prologue (1:1-18) in which, like Mark, there is no genealogy and no birth narrative. But the reason for this in the Fourth Gospel is that the Son of God has always existed and, in fact, has created all things (1:1-5). His incarnation is mentioned from the divine perspective of why he came to earth (1:6-18; cf. especially vv. 9, 12-13, 17-18), rather than from the human perspective of those who first beheld a newborn babe and wondered what he would become. From the outset, then, John’s Gospel presents Jesus as God’s Son—in fact, as God in the flesh.
After this brief prologue, the largest section of the Gospel, the “Book of Signs,” begins (1:19–12:50). In this section the Son of God performs seven “signs” (John never uses the term “miracle”) as a witness to his authority and identity. In a real sense, this gospel is a legal document, designed especially to prove Christ’s deity. There are witnesses, testimonies, evidence, and signs. At the end of John’s presentation, he turns to the jury with the appeal to believe his evidence (20:30-31. We see this legal argumentation in this second major section especially.
The Book of Signs, though disclosing seven miracles, is best organized geographically. There are eight locales for the manifestation of the Son of God seen here. As Jesus enters a new locale, the twin themes of Gentile response and Jewish hostility to him increase.
Jesus’ ministry begins in Perea and Galilee (1:19–2:11). There John gives his testimony as to Christ’s identity (1:19-34): he is the elect one of God.49 John’s testimony can be trusted because even his own disciples (at least one of them, Andrew, as well as his friends) follow Jesus (1:35-51). And in Cana of Galilee Jesus performs his first sign: changing the water into wine at a wedding (2:1-11). Although this was his first sign, only a handful of people (including his disciples) knew about it. He used the purification jars to perform the act. The significance of this was that there was a new order on the horizon, replacing the old. And whereas the old was related to the law (regulations about purification), the new order was related to the Spirit.
Then, Jesus went up from Galilee to Jerusalem for the Passover (2:12–3:36) and cleanses the temple (2:12-22). There he predicts another sign: he would raise up the temple (of his body) after the Jews destroyed it (2:19-21). While in Jerusalem, it became obvious that people were putting faith in him for the wrong reasons (2:23-25). The signs he was performing were not seen by the crowds as witnessing to Jesus’ true identity, but as a means to an end for their sake: they embraced him as Healer, but not as Savior. One such example was Nicodemus (3:1-12), to whom Jesus makes a self-disclosure (3:13-21).
After the pseudo-reception in Jerusalem, Jesus traveled back to Galilee, going through Samaria en route (4:1-42). There we see the account of Jesus’ conversation with and conversation of the woman at the well. In Samaria, Jesus performed no “sign,” although he did prove himself to be a prophet. Yet, the citizens of Sychar embraced him as “the Savior of the world” (4:42). Several key motifs are seen in this episode, including Gentile (and a sinful woman’s) response to the gospel, “thirst” in a spiritual sense (4:10-14), free access to God without the necessity of the Jewish cult (4:21-24), and the concept of “abiding” (4:40; cf. 15:1-8).
Jesus then returns to Galilee where a second sign is performed, the healing of a royal official’s son (4:43-54). Yet the sign is performed within the context of the Galileans hearing about his feats in Jerusalem. Hence, there was misunderstanding on their part in that, once again, they only wanted Jesus as Healer (4:48), not as Savior.
In Jesus’ second visit to Jerusalem for “a feast of the Jews” (5:1) he gets involved in a Sabbath controversy (5:1-47). It is caused by his healing of a lame man (his third sign) by the pool of Bethesda (5:1-15). Because he performs such an act on the Sabbath, the Jews plot to kill him (5:16-18), which elicits his taking the witness stand (5:31-47). In his defense, he basically argues that work of a redemptive nature is allowed on the Sabbath (5:17, 19-30) and that the Father testifies that Jesus has come for this very purpose (5:31-47).
Chapter six, once again, finds Jesus in Galilee for a third cycle (6:1-71). This time two signs are given: the feeding of the five thousand—a sign given to the public (6:1-15) and Jesus walking on the water—a sign given to Jesus’ disciples (6:16-24). Both signs reveal much about who Jesus is, though the crowds simply wanted to get fed (6:25-27) without recognizing that Jesus was the “Bread of Life” (6:35) who satisfies all spiritual hunger (6:28-40). When he stated the very principle of the substitutionary atonement (“This bread is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world,” 6:51; and “unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you,” 6:53) their animosity grew. Even several of his own disciples left him, not understanding his meaning (6:60-71).
The hostility toward Jesus met its climax when Jesus returned to Judea and Jerusalem for a third time (7:1–11:57)—this time for the Feast of Tabernacles (7:1-11). Although the material here could be organized internally on a geographical scheme, the repetition of the theme of Jewish unbelief after each round of demonstrations of Jesus’ Messiahship, seems to reveal the evangelist’s theology more clearly. There are three distinct cycles in this segment.
The first cycle addresses Jewish unbelief in spite of Jesus’ teaching (7:1–8:59). Because the Jews were plotting to take Jesus’ life, he went to the Feast of Tabernacles secretly (7:1, 11). Then, half-way through the feast, he began teaching publicly in the temple (7:14). The emphasis of his instruction was, again, on a defense that he was from God (7:15-36) and that he was, in fact, God’s Son (8:12-59). He again used metaphors (living water in 7:37-44, light of the world in 8:12) to describe the offer of salvation. In spite of all this, the Jews refused to believe (7:45-52; 8:59).
The second cycle addresses Jewish unbelief in spite of Jesus’ healing of a blind man (9:1–10:39). This again was a healing on the Sabbath (9:13-16), and for this very reason the Jews refused to believe that Jesus was sent from God (9:16). Further, when he declared that he was the “Good Shepherd” (using the metaphor of protection to indicate his role as Savior) (10:1-21)—and that “I and the Father are one” (10:30), they attempted to stone him on the spot (10:31-39).
The third cycle solidified their plot against Jesus’ life. For in this last confrontation, Jesus raises a man from the dead (the seventh sign) (10:40–11:44), causing many Jews finally to believe in him (11:45). The Sanhedrin consequently planned to take his life, out of political and religious expediency (11:48). Unwittingly, the high priest gives the clearest statement of substitutionary atonement found in John’s Gospel (11:50), which John capitalizes on (11:51).
Jesus’ final manifestation to the nation came in his fourth visit to the holy city (12:1-50). He prepared for this manifestation by his anointing at Bethany by Mary (12:1-11). Then he entered Jerusalem, being proclaimed “King of Israel” in fulfillment of prophecy (12:13-16). As a twin foreshadowing of events to come, John depicts the Jews’ rejection because of his last sign (the raising of Lazarus), and Gentile response apart from any miraculous catalyst (12:17-22). The Book of Signs then concludes with Jesus’ own somber prediction of his death (12:23-36) followed by John’s record of Isaiah’s prediction (Isa. 6:10) of Jewish rejection (12:37-41) and cowardice (12:42-43).
The Gospel now makes a sudden turn inward. No longer is Jesus presenting himself to the nation year after year. The third major section of the Gospel shows him ministering to his disciples on the night before his death (13:1–17:26). This ministry is in light of the rejection by the nation and involves two aspects: instruction of the disciples (13:1–16:33) and praying for the disciples (17:1-26).
In his final instructions of the disciples Jesus used both object lessons and verbal instructions. In the upper room he washed their feet (13:1-17) as a demonstration of true greatness—and true love. His command to love one another (13:31-35) is wedged between two predictions, one of betrayal (13:18-30), one of denial (13:36-38). He then comforted his disciples with instructions about the Godhead’s eschatological role in their lives (14:1-31a). It is here that John seems to place the Olivet Discourse (14:1-4). In his Gospel it is much abbreviated because he suppresses future judgment (thus all statements about Jerusalem’s demise are evacuated), and especially in this section of the book emphasizes only Jesus’ role to the disciples.
On the way to Gethsemane Jesus offers concluding remarks (14:31b–16:33). He speaks about the necessity of abiding in him as evidence of genuine life (15:1-17). The pericope of the vine and branches must be seen against the backdrop of Judas’ betrayal, for Judas was one who did not abide (cf. also 1 John 2:19 where the author picks up this theme once again). Then he prepares his disciples for the hatred by the world (15:18–16:4), reminding them that the Holy Spirit would comfort them (16:5-16).
With words of present comfort (16:17-33), he goes to the garden and prays for his followers (17:1-26). In Gethsemane, with the prediction of the disciples’ grief still on his mind, he focuses on his future glory with the Father (17:1-5) and protection and oneness of his disciples (17:6-19). His prayer concludes with a petition that the future converts of the disciples would also be united in love and mission (17:20-26).
After Jesus’ high priestly prayer, the fourth major section of the Gospel begins (18:1–20:31). The true high priest would soon become the slain lamb. He is arrested, being betrayed by Judas (18:1-11), tried before Annas and Caiaphas (18:12-27) and then Pilate (18:28-40). After Peter denies him three times (18:25-27) Pilate pronounces Jesus innocent of all charges (18:28-40; cf. v. 38). But the crowd, reminding Pilate of his duty (19:12) and their alleged loyalty to Caesar (19:15), forced his hand.
Jesus was then brought to Golgotha and crucified there between two others (19:17-42). In John’s account of the crucifixion, there is an emphasis on his completed work (“It is finished” in 19:30) as one who has now taken the place of the sinner, for he now is the one who is thirsty (19:28).50 There is also an emphasis on the fulfillment of the scripture which typologically pointed to Jesus as the Passover lamb (19:31-37, especially v. 36 [cf. Exod 12:46]). Thus the lamb of God, about whom John testified, truly came to take away the sin of the world.
John gives a detailed account of the resurrection of Christ (20:1-31). His narrative of the empty tomb includes Mary Magdalene’s shock of seeing the stone rolled away, without mention of the announcement by an angel (20:1-2). She tells Peter what she saw and Peter and “the beloved disciple” actually enter the tomb (the only record of anyone doing so in the gospels [20:3-9]). The “beloved disciple” alone of all the disciples is said to believe without first seeing Jesus (20:9). He thus becomes an example for his audience to follow, an archetype for faith apart from a demand for signs (contra Thomas [20:29]). Then, after John and Peter depart, Jesus appears to Mary (20:10-17) who promptly reports this to the disciples (20:18). Further proof of Jesus’ resurrection comes in his appearance to most of the disciples (20:19-23) and finally to Thomas (20:24-29), who exclaims “My Lord and my God!” (20:28), bringing the testimony of others to a close. An appeal is then made to the Gentile readers to confirm their faith in Christ (20:30-31), keeping in mind that even though they did not have the benefit of seeing Jesus in the flesh, they are more blessed than those who, like Thomas, believed because of seeing him (20:29).
In the epilogue to the Gospel (21:1-25), written after the Gospel had been completed but before publication, the whole focus is on Jesus’ relation to Peter. When the Lord comes to the Sea of Tiberias (21:1), he found Peter and the other disciples fishing (21:2-5). After instructing them where to cast the net, which resulted in a miraculous catch of fish (21:6), John noticed that it was the Lord (21:7). Peter responded enthusiastically by swimming ashore to Jesus (21:8). John’s account of this showed that Peter’s denial of Jesus was neither permanent nor mentioned because of any animosity John might have toward Peter. In fact, Jesus reinstates Peter three times (21:15-17), for Peter had denied the Lord three times. This all sets the stage for the prediction which John wanted his audience to know about in greater detail than Peter had revealed (cf. 2 Peter 1:14-15). Jesus predicted Peter’s death as a martyr, pointing out that it was entirely within God’s sovereign plan, for it would ultimately glorify God (21:18-19). This was immediately followed by an ambiguous statement about John’s longevity (21:20-23), no doubt mentioned by John to keep his audience from having false hopes about his continued ministry to them. The Gospel makes its (second) conclusion by recording the commendation of the Ephesian elders on John’s testimony (21:24-25).