During this review, I will discuss Chapter two in Reading the Bible as Literature.  The author of this book is Jeanie C. Crain.  I will start off by discussing the content of this chapter, some background information to help the reader understand some things, a summary of the main points and then finish off with a review. 

This chapter is named “Style, Tone, ad Rhetorical Strategy: A Way of Using Language.”  There are some definitions that will need to be known before we continue talking about Chapter two.  Implication is like a metaphor or a simile but without the verb or the words like or as.  There are a few other words that have to do with Comparison and Association like personification condescension and metonymy.  Appellation is “using a quality, office, or attribute for a proper noun, such as when God is spoken of as “the majesty” (pg 25).  Circumlocution is when a descriptive phrase is used of a name.  This is done in order to emphasize the association.

Some more words that will be important to know include some to describe arrangement of words like variance, irony and double meaning.  Personification is where “things are represented or spoken of as persons” (pg 28).  Anthropomorphism is when the characteristics of human beings are attributed to God.  Zoomorphism is when features are attributed to a different species of an animal.  Some other words used throughout the chapter include foreshadowing, allude, irony and rhetorical questions.  The chapter finishes up with talking about euphemism, repetition, recursion, and inclusion.

Now that we have talked about some of the chapter content, we are ready to move on to a summary of the main points of chapter two in Reading the Bible as Literature. As previously stated, this chapter is called “Style, Tone, and Rhetorical Strategy: A Way of Using Language.”  The first section is called “Preliminary Considerations.”  In this section, the author gives a little bit of background about what we should consider before we dive into the chapter.  Then the chapter goes on to “Style, Tone and Strategy.”  In this section, the author talks about how these things are found in the Bible.  These strategies are all used in order to make special effects on the literature. 

The next section is “Translation.”  This section talks about the different translations that have been done in the past.  Through these translations the meanings have changed a lot.  The next section is “Comparison, Association and Arrangements of Words.”  In this section, the author talks about different rhetorical devices that are seen throughout the Bible.  Also, the author gives examples in order to get their minds thinking about the devices.  It also has to do with how the words are arranged throughout passages in order to get certain points across.  Some ways that this is used is by repetition, sounds, additions, omissions and much more. 

The author then goes on to discuss “A Sampling of Rhetorical Devices.”  Similes and metaphors are two major devices that the author focuses on in this section.  One example of this device is like “this [bread] is my body” (Matt. 26.26).  This is taking two absolutely different things and comparing them.  The chapter then goes on to talk about Personification, Metonymy and Synecdoche and then on to Anthropomorphism and Zoomorphism.  A Merism is “a special use of synecdoche which uses the word “and” to join together contrasting parts to express totality” (pg 29). 

An oxymoron is a combination of two Greek words that mean “sharp” and “dull.”  This is when you put contrasting words or ideas together to create one idea.  The undisputed letter of Paul is a time where there are contrasting ideas that are put together to make a special effect on them.  The author then goes on to talk about quotation, allusion and foreshadowing.  Then the chapter talks about irony, rhetorical question, amplification and euphemism.  The chapter wraps up by talking about repition, recursion, inclusio and chiasm.

I will now go on to give a review of Chapter two.  In my opinion, the chapter does a great job at achieving its goal.  The goal is to introduce some rhetorical devices that are used in literature and specifically the Bible.  The author does a great job at explaining what the device is and then by giving examples.  This is great for the reader because they can understand what the device is first and then they can look at the example in the Bible.  This also provides for a great time for the reader to be able to take the example and find other ones as well.

The possibilities that are suggested by the chapter include a few things.  First and foremost, the chapter gives great opportunity to be able to find other examples of the rhetorical devices throughout the book.  After the device is explained clearly and the author gives one example, that gives ample time and resources for the reader to be able to go back on their own time and find more examples.  Also, at the end of this chapter, as all of the others as well, the author gives a great amount of exercises and questions to get the readers mind thinking.  The questions and exercises are challenging and make the reader think and do some research. 

The personal experiences that I have related to this subject are limited to the literature parts.  I have never spent time seeing what rhetorical devices you can find in the Bible.  I have spent a lot of time in my years of schooling looking at rhetorical devices and seeing how they are in different types of literature.  I think that this has helped in my experience so far with this class.  It helps that I have some experience with the rhetorical devices so that I can catch on a little quicker when I’m reading. 

Overall, chapter two of Reading the Bible as Literature is a great way to learn how devices are used throughout the Bible.  I started out by providing some content to help understand the chapter.  I then went on to describe the chapter in a summary and finished up with my opinions in a review.