Copyright 1997MWSC/Jeanie C. Crain All rights reserved.
Kings of Judah and Israel
|930-913 Rehoboam 1K.11:43.||930-910 Jeroboam I|
|913-911 Abijam 1K.14:31.||910-909 Nadab|
|911-870 Asa 1K.15:8.||909-886 Baasha|
|870-849 Jehoshaphat 1K.15:24.||886-885 Elah|
|849-843 Jehoram 2Chr.21:1.||885-874 Omri founds Samaria|
|843 Ahaziah 2K.8:25.||874-853 Ahab|
|843-838 Athaliah 2K.8:26.||853-852 Ahaziah|
|838-800 Joash 2K.11:2.||852-843 Joram|
|800-785 Amaziah 2K.14:1.||843-816 Jehu|
|742-735 Jotham 2K.15:5.||801-786 Joash|
|735-716 Ahaz 2K.15:38.||786-746 Jeroboam II|
|Hezekiah 2K.16:20.||746 Zechariah|
|Manasseh, 2K.21:1.||746-745 Shallum|
|Amon, 2K.21:19||745-737 Menahem|
|Josiah, 1K.13:2.||737-736 Pekahiah|
|Jehoahaz (c), or Shallum, 2K.23:30.||737-732 Pekah|
|Jehoiakim, 2K.23:34.||732-724 Hoshea|
|Jehoiachin, or Jeconiahn 2K.24:6.
Zedekiah, or Mattaniah, 2K.24:17.
ASA , (physician)
JEHOSHAPHAT , (Jehovah judges)
JOASH , or JEHOASH , (Jehovah is strong)
JOTHAM , (Jehovah is upright)
HEZEKIAH , (strength of Jehovah)
JOSIAH , (Jehovah heals)
JEROBOAM I , (struggler for the people)
NADAB , (liberal)
BAASHA , (offensive)
ELAH , (an oak)
ZIMRI , (famed in song)
OMRI , (handful)
AHAB , (uncle)
AHAZIAH , (Jehovah seizes)
JEHORAM or JORAM , (Jehovah exalted)
JEHU , (Jehovah is He)
JEHOAHAZ , (Jehovah seized)
JEHOASH or JOASH , (Jehovah is strong)
JEROBOAM II , (struggler for the people)
ZACHARIAH , (Jehovah remembers)
SHALLUM , (recompense)
MENAHEM , (consoler)
PEKAHIAH , (Jehovah opens eyes)
PEKAH , (opens eyes)
HOSHEA , (deliverence)
Outlines based in part on Thompson Notes with liberal rewriting
In the Hebrew text, 1 and 2 Kings appear as one book. The division may have been made for the convenience of Greek readers.
The book divides into the reign of King Solomon and the history of Judah and Israel.
I. The History of the Reign of Solomon.
(1) Opening events. The death of David, and the accession of Solomon, his son, chaps. 1-2.
(2) The early years of Solomon's reign, the golden age of Israel, made famous by:
(a) The king's wise choice, 3:5-14.
(b) His discriminating judgment, 3:16-28.
(c) His surpassing wisdom, 4:29-34.
(d) The growth of his dominions, 4:21.
(e) The splendor of his court and palaces, 4:22-28; 7:1-12.
(f) The building of the temple, chaps. 5-6.
(g) Other building enterprises and great wealth, 9:17-23; 10:14-29.
(h) The visit of the queen of Sheba, 10:1-13.
(3) The later years of his reign. The decline of his kingdom brought about by:
(a) His extravagant luxury, 10:14-29.
(b) His notorious sensuality, 11:1-3.
(c) His apostasy from God, 11:4-8.
(d) The enemies which the Lord stirred up against him, 11:14-40.
II. The History of the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel. From the death of Solomon to the accession of Jehoram, in Judah; and from the accession of Jeroboam to the reign of Ahaziah, in Israel. Dates are taken from the Oxford Companion to the Bible.
(1) The disruption of the kingdom through the folly of Solomon's son, S-1. Rehoboam (924-907), 11:43-12:19. Rehoboam inherited an impoverished and alienated kingdom, his rule accepted in Judah but not in the northern kingdom. The northern kingdom had been drained by Solomon's ambitious building program; Solomon used conscription which deprived large sections of the country of productive labor. Rehoboam disregarded the advice of the older men, taunting them by saying his little finger was thicker than their father's loins, laid a heavy yoke on his people. We need to be clear what this means: Rehoboam chose to follow a hard line policy of not reducing taxation for the northern kingdom simply because doing so would reduce the living style of Rehoboam and his henchmen. Rehoboam insisted that while his father (Solomon) had beaten them with whips, he would use leaded scourges. The elders immediately seceded from the United Kingdom. This began the divided kingdom, with Israel establishing its capital at Tirzah and making the old shrines of Bethel and Dan royal temples. Israel was larger and wealthier than Judah. The next fifty years after the collapse of the United Kingdom, Israel and Judah fought each other. The southern kings of Judah accused Israel of apostasy, although some see this as restoration of status quo (what Israel was before union with Judah under King David. Shisak of Egypt comes against Jerusalem, takes treasures. Actually, what happens is Rehoboam secured Jerusalem by making a substantial payment from the Temple treasury. Rehoboam wasleft with small and weak kingdom, aggravated by aggression from Egypt which lasted four decades into the reign of his grandson Asa; Asa negotiated agreement with Benhadad, the Aramean king of Damascus and attacked Israel's northern border; with Baasha of Israel distracted, Asa secured his own northern frontier with fortifications in Mizpah and Geba.
In Judah, religion took on much of the ritual of the Jebusites, the original inhabitants of Jerusalem. The Hebrew Yahweh takes on some of the characteristics of (Baal) El Elyon. For example, we have Leviathan, the waters of chaos to be tamed by El Elyon. You may wish to note that surrounding mythologies often depicted a violent creation; this is replaced in the Priestly account in Genesis by a calm and peaceful establishment of order. Hebrew faith insisted that order would always prevail in the universe. Still, existence is struggle, tinged with mystery and unavoidable terror. The Hebrews believed Yahweh would eventually establish wholeness, harmony, and security. The liberation from Egypt revealed Yahweh's plans for the whole of humanity. Gradually, Yahweh Elyon (Psalms 97.9) gains preeminence over other gods. Rituals and ceremonies in Jerusalem (at emotional level) has already begun to teach the people of Judah that Yahweh is the only God. The thrust of the temple period has been the achievement of rest and a permanent abode for Yahweh. Here, pilgrims experienced liberation from the flux of relativity and meaninglessness of life; long years of wilderness wanderings point to a place where human beings cannot live, a world of suffering and extinction. What we hear from the Deuteronomist account of the kings of Israel and Judah is that they are good or bad relative to worshipping Yahweh and suppressing other shrines; we hear almost nothing else of their kingships.
(2) The ten tribes revolt and enthrone N-1. Jeroboam (924-903) as king of Israel, 12:20. Jeroboam lead his people into apostasy; set up gold calves in Bethel and Dan. A calf was a symbol of Baal, and idols were forbidden. Judah (southern) increasingly turned for help to Yahweh, identifying their enemies (Israel, Egypt, Damascus) with the primal forces of chaos. These enemies, like the sea or desert, could overturn the security of their state. Life was viewed as a struggle between the forces of light and darkness, a return to barbarism always threatening to overthrow established order. Religion and ritual replayed the eternal, unseen struggle at the heart of existence.
(3) The comparative history of the two kingdoms.
(a) The reigns in Judah of Rehoboam, S-2.Abijam or Abijah (907-906), S-3. Asa (905-874), and S-4. Jehoshaphat (874-850), 12:1-22:50.
2. Abijah--son of Jeroboam, little better than his father.
3. Asa--son of Abijah--credited with reform, relatively clean religious health, warred with Israel (Israel actually reached Ramah, five miles north of Jerusalem) and bribed Ben-hadad of Syria to change sides, tipping balance to Judah.
4. Jehoshaphat (Judah)--son of Asa, did right as did his father, controlled Edom, imitated Solomon's maritime operations, made peace with Israel; high places not taken away and sacrifices not discontinued. Jehoshaphat was praised for his fidelity to Yahweh alone, yet other gods still functioned. Jehosaphat was contemporary with Omri and Ahab (Northern)and an unwavering supporter of their military undertakings. The two families were joined by the marriage of Jehoshaphat's son Jehoram (Judah) to Omri's (Northern) daughter or granddaughter, daughter of King Ahab and Jezebel of Israel (Northern). Note that Jehoshaphat had no problem with this marriage. Jehoram and Athaliah seem to have sealed a treaty which allowed Judah to become a vassal of Israel; Jehoshaphat and Jehoram both fought on Israel's side against Damascus. Jehoshaphat won several victories against Moab, Amnom, and Seir, but Nineveh was becoming a threat. In Nineveh, the kings of Assyria were building an empire. When the Omride (Northern) dynasty fell in 843, there were serious repercussions for Judah as well. When Israel's troops were defending its northern borders from the Aramaen encroachment, Jehu , commander of the troops, assassinated Jehoram (Northern) of Israel, son of Ahab, seized government and masssacred the whole Omride family. Ahaziah (Judah), who succeeded Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat, was also assassinated. Queen Athaliah (wife of Jehoram) actually tried to wipe out any descendents of the Davidic dynasty by killing legitimate heirs. Six years later, the Temple priests and rural aristocracy crowned Jehoash, her infant grandson, as king, executing Athaliah. Jehoash later made a substantial payment from the Temple treasury to prevent the king of Damascus from attacking Jerusalem.
(b) The evil reigns in Israel of N-1 Jeroboam, N-2 Nadab (903-902), N-3 Baasha (902-886), N-4 Elah (886-885), N-5 Zimri N-6 Omri (885-873), N-7 Ahab (873-851), and N-8 Ahaziah (851-849), 12:20-22:53.
2. Nadab--son of Jeroboam, is assassinated by Baasha, and thus begins a series of assassinations of Israel's kings, interpreted by writer of kings as just.
3. Baasha--house of Issachar assassinates Nadab, kills all the house of Jeroboam. Jehu, the prophet, predicts anyone of Baasha who dies in the city will be eaten by dogs; in the country, devoured by birds.
4. Elah--son of Baasha; Zimri, commander of his charriots, assassinates him while he is drinking. Zimri destroys all the house of Baasha. When Omri, commander of Israel's army comes against him, he burns himself in the king's house.
5. Omri--commander of the army, made king; Israel, after Zimri commits suicide, is divided into two factions, half following Tibni and half following Omri; Omri overcomes Tibni and followers; buys Samaria and founds a new capitol; marries his son Ahab to Jezebel, daughter of king of neighboring Phoenicians--good political policy but religiously disastrous; did more evil than all the kings before him.
6. Ahab--son of Omri; does evil; takes Jezebel, daughter of Phoenician king, as wife; erects altar to Baal in Samaria; Elijah the Tishbit prophesies against Ahab; builds Jericho, laying bodies of children under the foundations to bring good luck; Ahab wars with Syria Beh-hadad--Ahab makes covenant with Beh-hadad; Elijah prophesies anyone of Ahab who dies in city will be eaten by dogs; in country, by birds; Ahab eventually humbles himself, and destruction is delayed until the reign of his son Ahaziah.
7. Ahaziah--does evil, serves Baal.
HEROIC CHARACTER. The prophet Elijah.
(a) Summary of his life
Prophet of Fire
I. Facts Concerning His Origin and Appearance. Nothing is known of his parents.
He is one of the most unique and dramatic characters of Bible history. Rugged in appearance and dress, he is a prototype of John the Baptist, 2K.1:8; Mt.3:4.
II. The Main Events of His Life present a series of thrilling pictorial scenes. First Scene. His unheralded appearance before the idolatrous King Ahab to announce a prolonged drought, 1K.17:1. Second Scene. In the wilderness in the Kerith Ravine, where he has gone by divine command to depend for his food upon supplies brought by ravens, 1K.17:2-6.
Here his faith is tested by the drying up of the brook, 1K.17:7. Third Scene. At Zarephath. Outside the famine-stricken city, a widow is gathering sticks to cook her last meal.
The prophet is sent to her to be fed, 1K.17:8-9. On arrival he begs for a drink of water and a piece of bread, but she tells him that her supplies are reduced to a handful of flour and a little oil in a jug, 1K.17:12.
Then comes the divine, "Don't be afraid," and the promise of plentiful supplies to the end of the famine, 1K.17:13-14. Fourth Scene. In the upper room at the widow's home at Zarephath. The strain of the famine has been too great for her son and he lies dead before the prophet. We see Elijah, by great struggle in prayer, bring the boy to life again, 1K.17:17-24. Fifth Scene. False prophets summoned. Elijah suddenly appears before King Ahab and commands him to summon the false prophets to Mount Carmel, 1K.18:17-19. Sixth Scene. On Mount Carmel.
(1) The prophet calls the people to a decision concerning God, and challenges the prophets of Baal to a fiery test, 1K.18:20-24.
(2) The failure of the false prophets, vv. 26-29.
(3) After the prayer of Elijah the divine fire descends and consumes his sacrifice, vv. 30-38.
(4) The verdict of the people that the Lord is the true God. The destruction of the false prophets, vv. 39-40. Seventh Scene. The end of the drought. Elijah's prayer for rain. The prophet runs before the king to the entrance of Jezreel, 1K.18:41-46. Eighth Scene. The prophet under a broom tree in the wilderness, having fled from the wrath of Queen Jezebel. Discouraged and exhausted, he wants to die, but he is fed by an angel, and journeys on to Mount Horeb, 1K.19:1-8. Ninth Scene. The prophet pours out his complaint to the Lord. He is given a new and better revelation of God's character and methods, 1K.19:9-13. He is commanded to anoint two prospective kings and his own successor, 1K.19:15-17. Tenth Scene. On a farm at Abel Meholah. Elijah finds Elisha plowing and places his own cloak on him to indicate that this farmer is called to be his successor, 1K.19:19-21. Eleventh Scene. In the vineyard of Naboth. The prophet finds King Ahab taking possession of the inheritance for which he had murdered Naboth. He pronounces doom on the wicked king and his wife, 1K.21:17-24. Twelfth Scene. Two companies of soldiers are sent by the king of Samaria to capture the prophet and he calls down fire from heaven and destroys them, 2K.1:1-12; later he announces the doom of the idolatrous king, v. 16. Thirteenth Scene. The last journey of Elijah. Accompanied by Elisha, he travels through the country until they reach the Jordan River, where Elijah strikes the waters with his cloak and the two pass over on dry ground. As they stand talking, Elisha makes his farewell request. Suddenly a chariot of fire separates the two friends, and Elijah is taken up by a whirlwind into heaven, 2K.2:1-11. Postmortem Scene. On the mount of transfiguration Elijah reappears with Moses and talks with Christ, Mt.17:3.
ELIJAH, the prophet.
(1) General References to,
1K.17:1,15,23 1K.18:21 1K.19:5,19
1K.21:17 2K.1:3,10 2K.2:11
2Chr.21:12 Mal.4:5 Mt.17:3 Lu.4:26
Three times fed with Divine Supplies.
By ravens, 1K.17:6.
By miraculously increased store of the widow, 1K.17:15.
By an angel, 1K.19:5-8.
A fearless reformer, 1K.18:17-40.
Mighty in prayer,
In one instance yielded to discouragement, 1K.19:3,4.
Not infallible in judgment, 1K.19:14,18.
No dew or rain.
Predicts Ahab will have his blood licked up by dog; predicts dogs whall eat Jezebel and descendets of Ahab.
Predicts Ahaziah, king of Israel, will die from fall through lattice. Ahaziah sends 3 envoys of fifty to plead for his life; all are killed, and Elijah is unrelenting that Ahaziah will die. Predicts death of Jehoram of Judah by bowel disease for not doing good as did Jehoshaphat, his father, and Asa, his grandfather. (This version is unique to the writer of Chronicles.)
A Sequel to 1 Kings
MAIN SUBJECT. The history of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, from the latter part of the reign of Ahaziah in Israel, and Jehoram in Judah, up to the time of the captivities.
The rulers compromise, and the people rebel; Israel is conquered by the Assyrians, and Judah continues on a downgrade with judgment delayed due to a number of good kings.
As far as the history of Israel is concerned, it is a dark picture of degenerate rulers and sinful people, ending in slavery. 2 Chronicles picks up these stories in detail.
The book largely centers around the lives of the two prophets Elijah and Elisha.
MESSAGE. Rulers influence the destiny of a nation.
SYNOPSIS. This book records the days of Elijah, the history of Elisha, and events in the history of Judah and Israel.
I. Mainly the History of the Last Days of Elijah.
(1) He calls down fire from heaven to destroy his enemies, 1:9-12.
(2) The dividing of the Jordan River, 2:8.
(3) His translation, 2:11. For other references to his life
II. Mainly the History of Elisha.
(1) He asks for a double portion of grace, 2:9.
(2) He divides the Jordan, 2:14.
(3) He heals the waters, 2:19-22.
(4) He curses the jeering children, 2:23-24.
(5) He procures water for an army, 3:15-20.
(6) He increases the widow's oil, 4:1-7.
(7) He raises a dead child to life, 4:18-37.
(8) He purifies the deadly food, 4:38-41.
(9) He feeds the multitude, 4:42-44.
(10) He heals Naaman, the leper, 5:5-15.
(11) He strikes Gehazi with leprosy, 5:20-27.
(12) He causes the axhead to float, 6:1-7.
(13) He discloses the plans of the king of Syria, chap. 6.
(14) He strikes the Syrians with blindness, 6:18-20.
(15) He prophesies abundance for a famine-stricken city, 7:1-18.
(16) He secures the restoration of land to the Shunammite woman, 8:3-6.
(17) He prophesies concerning the exaltation of Hazael, 8:7-15.
(18) He commands the anointing of Jehu as king, 9:1-6.
(19) He retains his prophetic power on his deathbed, 13: 14-19.
(20) The post-mortem manifestation of divine power at his tomb, 13:20-21. The secret of his power--his desire for the reception of a double portion of grace enabled him to live in the spirit of continual victory.
III. Other Notable Events in the History of Judah and Israel.
(1) Jehu's execution of divine judgment on Joram (Jehoram), Ahaziah, Jezebel, seventy of Ahab's children, and the worshipers of Baal, chaps. 9-10.
8-N Jehoram (Joram)-(849-843)-son of Ahab; made war with Ahaziah of Judah against Hazael, King of Syria; Syrians wounded Jehoram; Elisha annointed Jehu while Jehoram was recovering; Jehu conspired against Jehoram; Jehoram and Ahaziah of Judah both went out to meet Jehu at the property of Naboth; Jehu shot Jehoram with an arrow between the shoulders that pierced the heart; Jehu shot Ahaziah, also, who died at Megiddo. Ahaziah of Judah wass buried in Jerusalem: Jehu called Jezebel a Zimri and had her thrown down so that her blood spattered the walls; dogs ate all but her skull, feet, and palms.
9-N Jehu (843-816)-28 years-killed Jehoram of Israel, Ahaziah of Judah; had Jezebel thrown down, killed, and eaten by dogs; killed Ahab's 70 sons, put their heads in baskets and sent them to Jezreel; slew remaining house of Ahab in Jezreel; went to Samaria and slew all of house of Ahab; slew followers of Baal after calling them together to sacrifice; wiped out Baal from Israel but did not turn from sins of Jeroboam and calves in Bethel and Dan; because he did some right, sons to four generations are to sit on the throne. Jehu's coup initiated hard times in both Israel and Judah. Syria-Palestine was dominated for the next four decades by the Aramaean kings of Damascus. Judah was troubled as well. After Ahaziah, assassinated in connection with the Omride massacre, the next three Judean kings are assassinated--Athaliah, Joash, and Amaziah. Parts of Israel were being cut off by Hazael of Syria, especially Gadites, Reubenites, and Manassites (given land by Moses east of Jordan; they fought for other tribes in Canaan but asked to be given their possessions on the other side.)
10-N Jehoahaz (816-800)-son of Jehu, reigned during reign of Joash in Judah; did evil for 17 years; Israel given continually into hands of Hazael of Syria; Jehoahaz sought the Lord and was heard; worship of Asherah continued in Samaria.
11-N Jehoash (800-785) Joash-son of Jehoahaz reigned 16 years and did evil; fought against Amaziah of Judah; when Hazael of Syria dies, Jehoash, son of Jehoahaz took several cities back from Ben-hadad, Hazael's son; buried in Samaria. Warred against Amaziah of Judah.
12-N Jeroboam II (785-745)-father, Joash; restored border of Israel
13-N-Zechariah (745)-son of Jereboam, reigned in Samaria for six months; did evil; killed by Shallum; last of the dynasty of Jehu. His assassination began a series of revolts and counter revolts, like those preceding Omri.
14-N Shallum (745)-son of Jabesh, kills Zechariah, son of Jeroboam IIl; reigned one month in Samaria; struck down by Menahem.
15-N Menahem (745-736)-killed Shallum; sacked Tappuah and ripped open the pregnant women. Israel totteed., became easy prey to reviving Assyria; Menehem paid a large sum to hold his throne.
16-N Pekahiah (736-735)-son of Menahem reigned over Israel in Samaria for two years, did evil; Pekah, his captain, conspired against him, slew him in Samaria.
17-N Pekah (735-732)-son of Remaliah, reigned 20 years; did evil; Tiglathpileser of Assyria ravaged northern Israel and put an end to Syria by capturing Damascus; began deportation of Israel.
18-N Hoshea (732-723)-son of Elah reigned in Samaria for nine years; did evil; Shalmaneser of Assyria came up against him, and Hoshea became his vassal; plotted with So, King of Egypt; imprisoned, and Assyria besieged Samaria for three years; captured Samaria and began deportation of almost 30, 000; Israel fell in 721 BCE.
(2) The good reign of Joash (Jehoash), chaps. 11-12.
(3) The reigns of evil kings in Israel, followed by the captivity of the ten tribes, chaps. 13-17.
(4) The good reign of Hezekiah, chaps. 18-20.
(5) The evil reign of Manasseh, chap. 21.
(6) Josiah, the last of the good kings, chaps. 22-23.
(7) A series of evil kings in Judah lead to the captivity of the nation and the destruction of Jerusalem, chap. 25.
5-S Jehoram (850-843)-son of Jehoshaphat; at 32, reigned 8 years in Jerusalem; daughter of Ahab, his wife; did evil but Judah was saved for the sake of David. Edom revolted and set up a king of their own. Edom later fought with the Babylonians; condemned by Jeremiah (49).
6-S Ahaziah (843)-son of Jehoram and grandson of Ahab; 22 when he began and reigned for 1 year; his mother was Athaliah, a granddaughter of Omri; warred against Syria with Jehoram, son of Ahab at Ramoth-Gilead who was wounded and went to Jezreel to be healed; Ahaziah went to see Jehoram at Jezreel; Elisha at this time calls for Jehu, the son of Jehoshaphat to cut off the house of Ahab. Jehoram of Israel and Ahaziah of Judah set out to meet Jehu; Jehu shoots Jehoram with an arrow and has him cast on the plot of land belonging to Naboth, the Jezereelite. Obadiah (1) condemned Jehu's later slaughters. Ahaziah fled from Jehu but was also shot and died in Megiddo; he was carried to Jerusalem and buried.
7-S Athaliah (843-837)-when she found Jehu had killed her son Ahaziah, she arose and destroyed royal family of Judah (she was a descendent of Ahab and worshipper of Baal); Joash, son of Ahaziah, was spared by Jehosheba, half-sister of Ahaziah; Athaliah was slain in an uprising led by Jehoiada, the priest.
8-S Joash or Jehoash(837-?)-of the royal family of Judah through Ahaziah; spared from Athaliah by Jehosheba, half sister of Ahaziah; if Joash had been destroyed, this would have eliminated the house of David--theme of God's sustaining of life; put on throne at 7 in uprising of Jehoiada, the priest; he reigned 40 years in Jerusalem; did as priest instructed him, indicating priest was real source of power; priests had been taking money from people but not repairing temple which Joash saw and instructed them to refrain from dooing; Joash later took votive gifts from house of God and gave them to Hazael of Syria, buried in Jerusalem.
9-S Amaziah (?-?)-son of Joash, reigned 29 years, did right but people still sacrificed at high places; killed his servants who slew his father; practiced individual guilt and punishment by not killing children for sins of father; captured by Jehoash, king of Israel; slain in Lachish, buried in Jerusalem. Aramaean domination had begun to relax. Conflict was between Judah and Israel, with Israel overwhelmingly victorious. Jehoash (Jehoahaz) of Israel captured Jerusalem, took Judaeans captive to Samaria, and Judah probably remained a vassal to Israel through reigns of Uzziah and Jotham. Amos and Hosea, prophets, belonged to time of Uzziah and Jotham.
10-S Uzziah (Azariah)-sixteen when he began to reign and reigned fifty-two years; defeated 10, 000 Edomites; did right but sacrifices were still offered at high places; the Lord smite him, and he became a leper to his death and dwelt in a separate house; Jotham, his son, governed.
12-S-Jotham-(?-742)- son of Uzziah, began reign at 25 and ruled sixteen year in Jerusalem; did right but high places were not destroyed, and people continued to sacrifice to pagan gods. Rezin of Syria and Pekah came against Judah. Buried in Jerusalem.
13-S-Ahaz-began to reign at 20 and reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem; did not do right; burned his own son as an offering; besieged by Rezin; king of Edom recovered Elath for Edom; called for Tiglathpileser to rescue him from Syria and Israel; sent silver and gold from the temple to Tiglathpilser; people of Damascus were carried to Kir, and Rezin of Syria was killed. Ahaz sent to Tiglethpileser a model of the altars and its pattern, and Uriah the priest buit Tiglathpileser a similar altar for sacrifice.Ahaz dismantled the temple to pay tribute to Syria. Judah was a subject nation , and this situation remained essentially unchallenged until the fall of Jerusalem in 586/7.
14-S- Hezekiah (727-698)-son of Ahaz, does right after example of David, removed high places;broke in pieces bronze serpent Nehushtan that Moses had made (18.4) rebeled against Assyria; stripped gold from temple ad gives to Sennacherib of Assyradefeats Philistines; Aramaic language is used; beomes sick; consulted with Isaiah; became sick and had fifteen years added to life; Merodahbaladan of Babylon sent an envoy, and Hezekia welcomed them and showsed them the treasure house. Isaiah prophesied that Judah would be carried to Babylon (21). Hezekiah with allied kings challenged Assyrian domination during reign of Sennacherib, but attempt failed, and numerous Judean cities and villages were destroyed. Prophets Isaiah and Micah were active during Assyrian domination.
15-S-Manasseh (697-642)-son of Hezekiah; did evil; sacrificed his own son; sets an image of Asherah in the temple.
16-S-Amon (642-640)-son of Manasseh, reigned two years and is evil; forsook God; his servants conspired against him and killed him in his own house.
17-S-Josiah (639-609)-son of Amon; eight years old when he began to reign; did right; modeled himself after David; repaired temple; had book of law which wasfound in temple read aloud to people and inspired revival; renewed covenant; kept Passover. King Neco of Egypt wentto meet king of Assyria; Josiah went up gainst him and was slayed at Megiddo. Assyrians and Egyptians have established an alliance; as Assyria relaxed its grip on Judah, Egypt tightened its own. Judah was subject to Egypt until the battle of Carchemish in 605, when the Babylonians defeated Assyria and Egypt.
18-S-Jehoahaz II (609)-son of Josiah, began to reign at twenty-three; commited evil; put in bonds by Pharaoh Neco.
19-S-Eliakim -Jehoiachim (608-598)-father wasJosiah; did evil; Babylon invaded, gave silver and gold to Pharaoh; Neco was now master. Jehoiakim died while Jerusalem was under Babylonian seige, and was replaced by Jehoiachin, his son.
20-S-Jehoiachin (598-597)-son of Jehoiachim; eighteen when he began to reign; gave himself up to the king of Babylon; taken to Babylon as prisoner
21-S- (Mattaniah) Zedekiah (597-587/586)-Jehoiachin's uncle; twenty-one when he became king; ruled for eleven years; ; Nebuchadnezzar burned the temple and houses of Jerusalem; began deportation; the poorest were left to be vinedressers and plowmen; Zedekiah's sons were slain before him, and his eyes were put out by Chaldeans; Jerusalem was burned by Nebbuchadnezzar Gedeliah was appointed governor, signalling the abolition of the monarachy and what should have been peace; Ishmael attacked and killed Gedeliah. Gedeliah was not of the Davidic line.
ELIJAH ,(my God is Jehovah),"The prophet of fire" ELISHA , (my God is salvation) , "The successer of Elijah" NATHAN , (he gave) ISAIAH , (salvation of Jehovah) JEREMIAH , (exalted to God) EZEKIEL , (the strength of God) DANIEL , (God is my judge) , "The Statesman Prophet" HOSEA , (deliverence) JOEL , (Jehovah is God) AMOS , (one with a burden) OBADIAH , (servant of Jehovah) JONAH , (dove) ,"The Reluctant Missionary" MICAH , (who is like Jehovah) NAHUM, (comforter) HABAKKUK , (embrace) ZEPHANIAH , (Jehovah hides) HAGGAI , (festive) ZECHARIAH , (Jehovah remembers) MALACHI , (messenger of Jehovah)